The weather monitoring module is one of the five modules of the MCYFS and can be split in four procedures.
The output of the weather monitoring module is used in two ways: firstly, to derive agro-meteorological indicators for a direct evaluation of alarming situations such as drought, extreme rainfall during sowing, flowering or harvest etc., and secondly, as input to the crop simulation module to simulate crops behaviour and to evaluate the effect of weather on crops.
Each day encoded reports from more than 5100 synoptic weather stations, that regularly collect and supply one or more meteorological variables, are acquired over Europe and its neighborhood and are added as quality checked data to the station weather database. Similarly, reports from 290 weather stations in China are processed each day. The variables collected include air temperature, precipitation, radiation, air humidity, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, snow depth, atmospheric pressure, visibility, and duration of sunshine. All incoming data are checked for errors and dubious values, such as e.g. air temperatures outside a realistic range. The incoming data has a temporal resolution of 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours, depending on the parameter and measurement network. It is then converted to daily values that fit in an uniform station weather database. Some variables, required for the crop simulation module, are not (or not regularly) observed by each station. Such variables, for example evapotranspiration, are derived from the measured data and also added to the database.
In addition to observed weather data also weather forecast data is loaded into the system so that crop development and biomass accumulation can be simulated into the future (see crop simulation module), reaching closer to the end of the crop season and therefore advancing crop yield forecasts along the season (see yield forecasting module).
Five data products from and from the Copernicus Programme are loaded into the system:
- Analysis model (HIS)
- Deterministic forecast model (OPE)
- Ensemble Prediction System (ENS)
- Seasonal forecast model (SEAS)
- ERA5 (ERA5)
These products have a different number of forecast days (forecast depth) and a varying number of possible weather realizations called 'members'. Different members can be thought of as model runs with a slightly different initialization and thus slightly different results, but with equal validity. Similar to observed weather, meteorological variables such as air temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation are directly retrieved from the forecast data. Additional parameters such as evapotranspiration are calculated from these variables within the MCYFS.
Observed weather, aquired from weather stations, have an irregular distribution and density in space. Data of a single weather station are representative for the location of that station only. To construct weather data for locations in between stations a conversion is needed. Interpolation (constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points) is one of the methods to do this. In the MCYFS this procedure is used to convert irregular distributed station data to regular distributed data. The regular distribution is organized as a grid with side by side grid cells of 25 kilometre width and 25 kilometre length that covers the entire region of interest (e.g. Europe). This is called the regular climatic grid. The interpolation is managed by a sub-system called.
Weather forecast data come already as spatial fields, not point data as observations, but in varying spatial resolutions and projections that are different from the regular climatic grid used in the MCYFS. Therefore, forecast data have to be interpolated from the 'source' grid to the 'target' grid: the regular climatic grid of 25 by 25 km.
The interpolation procedure generates gridded datasets of observed and forecast weather. In order to describe weather at a spatial domain larger than the grid size and to answer questions like e.g.:
'What was the average temperature in northern France during the last week for locations where winter wheat is grown?'
gridded weather data are aggregated to different types of regions. Observed and forecast gridded weather data are aggregated to different levels of administrative regions for a number of landcover types. This aggregation is based on a weight of each grid cell for the area covered by the selected landcover type.
Altogether, the aggregation procedure results in many aggregated weather data sets based on the data type (e.g. observed, ERA-Interim, forecast), regions and landcover types.
Aggregation of weather indicators
Climatology and analysis
Within the MCYFS climatology is considered as the long-term average of weather indicators. The long-term averages - or 'normal' conditions - are essential to understand how current weather conditions relate to the situation that was 'normal' in the past.
Long-term average daily values are calculated over the years in the archive for all spatial resolutions defined in each regional window. Two periods are considered: 1975-last year and 1995-last year.
In addition to averages of the basic indicators (such as precipitation or air temperature) additional statistics are calculated, for instance the probability of having a rainy day, defined as a day receiving more than a certain amount of rainfall (5, 10, 15 mm). It allows to compare extreme weather events of the current year to extremes of the past. For example, the number of rainy days (with more than 5 mm/d) of last month can be compared to the average number of rainy days of this month that occurred in the past.