Difference between revisions of "Glossary"
|Line 112:||Line 112:|
'''M'''onitoring '''A'''gricultural '''R'''esource'''s''' (in
'''M'''onitoring '''A'''gricultural '''R'''esource'''s''' (in started as Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing). The Food Security Unit of the JRC (formerly MARS Unit) provides scientific and technical support on EU Agriculture and Food Security policies. In Europe, the Unit addresses key issues related to the management and control of the Common Agriculture Policy: Independent crop yield forecasts, agricultural insurances, standard control methods of area based subsidies, compliance with environment, and effect of climate change. It supports EU projects related to Land Administration, the enlargement process, and the GMES Space Component. In developing countries, assistance is given to the EU Food Security Thematic Program with special emphasis on Africa, and to providing building blocks for an European capacity for Global Agriculture Monitoring. The activities of the Unit are based on expertise in agro- meteorological crop modelling, sampling methods, econometric, geomatics (GIS, GPS and ICT), and satellite & airborne remote-sensing (the Unit manages the EC Framework Contracts for the provision of Satellite Remote Sensing data and manages the access/dissemination of EU image data archives).
Revision as of 14:38, 13 October 2017
Application Programming Interface. An interface implemented by a software program that enables it to interact with other software. It facilitates interaction between different software programs similar to the way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.
BIOphysical Model Applications. is a software framework designed and developed for parameterizing and running modelling solutions based on biophysical models. The goal of this framework is to rapidly bridge from prototypes to operational applications.
The Canegro sugarcane model simulates sugarcane crop growth and development from daily weather data, cultivar and soil properties, and management input data. It simulates canopy development at the tiller and leaf level, radiation capture from leaf area index, the water balance using soil-plant-atmosphere continuum principles, biomass accumulation following a radiation use efficiency/respiration approach and biomass partitioning to different plant components, including stalk sucrose, using a sourcesink approach and affected by physiological age, temperature and water stress. The Canegro model can be regarded as one of the leading sugarcane crop growth models that has been used extensively in research and management. An early Canegro version was included in version 3.5 of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), Since then, amendments by different research groups resulted in different Canegro versions that were never integrated, nor incorporated into DSSAT. Simultaneously, DSSAT (version 4.0) adopted a modular structure, and many utilities were added.
Common Agricultural Policy is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. The CAP combines a direct subsidy payment for crops and land which may be cultivated with price support mechanisms, including guaranteed minimum prices, import tariffs and quotas on certain goods from outside the EU.
Crop Environment Resource Synthesis.
Crop Growth Monitoring System.
Side by side grid cells of 25 kilometer wide and 25 kilometer long that cover the European continent in a Interpolation of observed weather.1989 projected coordinate system. See also:
Cropping Systems simulation model is a user-friendly, conceptually simple but sound multi-year multi-crop daily time step simulation model. The model has been developed to serve as an analytic tool to study the effect of cropping systems management on productivity and the environment. The model simulates the soil water budget, soil-plant nitrogen budget, crop canopy and root growth, dry matter production, yield, residue production and decomposition, and erosion. Management options include: cultivar selection, crop rotation (including fallow years), irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, tillage operations, and residue management.
Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer.
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Intergovernmental organisation supported by 32 States that provide operational medium- and extended-range forecasts.
The Economic Interest Grouping of the National Meteorological Services of the European Economic Area under Belgian law located in Brussels. The primary objectives of ECOMET are to preserve the free and unrestricted exchange of meteorological information between the NMS's for their operational functions within the framework of WMO regulations and to ensure the widest availability of basic meteorological data and products for commercial applications. ECOMET
ECMWF 'Ensemble Prediction System' (15 days). See Acquisition.
The Global Administrative Unit Layers is an initiative implemented by FAO within the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and AfricaFertilizer.org projects. The GAUL compiles and disseminates the best available information on administrative units for all the countries in the world, providing a contribution to the standardization of the spatial dataset representing administrative units. The GAUL always maintains global layers with a unified coding system at country, first (e.g. departments) and second administrative levels (e.g. districts). Where data is available, it provides layers on a country by country basis down to third, fourth and lowers levels.
GRIdded Binary is a mathematically concise data format commonly used in meteorology to store historical and forecast weather data. It is standardized by the World Meteorological Organization's Commission for Basic Systems, known under number GRIB FM 92-IX, described in WMO Manual on Codes No.306. See also:
GTOPO30 is a digital elevation model for the world, developed by USGS. It has a 30-arc second resolution (approximately 1 km).
Global Telecommunication System. Global network for the transmission of meteorological data from weather stations, satellites and numerical weather prediction centres. GTS
ECMWF current day weather forecast of analysis model stored as HIStorical archive. See Acquisition of forecasted weather.
Inverse Distance Weighting. Method for multivariate interpolation, a process of assigning values to unknown points by using values from usually scattered set of known points. IDW
A physical property that can be quantified by measurement of which the value describes a physical system's state. The value of an indicator is expressed as the product of a numerical value and a unit of measurement. The changes of indicator values of a system can be used to describe its transformations. A few of the MCYFS indicators:
- Maximum temperature
- Leaf Aria index under water limited conditions
- Number of heat waves
- Incomming shortwave solar radiation based on MSG-SEVIRI
- Amount of rainfall
- NDVI based on NOAA-AVHRR
- Forecasted yield per country
Joint Research Center.
Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute). Dutch national weather forecasting service with headquarters in De Bilt, Netherlands.
Monitoring Agricultural Resources (in 1988 started as Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing). The Food Security Unit of the JRC (formerly MARS Unit) provides scientific and technical support on EU Agriculture and Food Security policies. In Europe, the Unit addresses key issues related to the management and control of the Common Agriculture Policy: Independent crop yield forecasts, agricultural insurances, standard control methods of area based subsidies, compliance with environment, and effect of climate change. It supports EU projects related to Land Administration, the enlargement process, and the GMES Space Component. In developing countries, assistance is given to the EU Food Security Thematic Program with special emphasis on Africa, and to providing building blocks for an European capacity for Global Agriculture Monitoring. The activities of the Unit are based on expertise in agro- meteorological crop modelling, sampling methods, econometric, geomatics (GIS, GPS and ICT), and satellite & airborne remote-sensing (the Unit manages the EC Framework Contracts for the provision of Satellite Remote Sensing data and manages the access/dissemination of EU image data archives).
Mars Crop Yield Forecasting System.
Meteorological Aviation Reports. Format for reporting weather information predominantly used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre-flight weather briefing, and by meteorologists, who use aggregated METAR information to assist in weather forecasting. METAR
ECMWF MONthly forecast with the Ensemble Prediction System (32 days). See Acquisition of forecasted weather.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. USA agency with a mission to understand and predict changes in Earth’s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet economic, social, and environmental needs. NOAA
The Nomenclature des Unités Territoriales Statistiques or Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics is a standard developed and regulated by the European Union for referencing the subdivisions of it's member states. NUTS regions
ECMWF OPErational deterministic forecast (10 days).
Reduced Gaussian grid
Gridded coordinate system on a sphere. The gridpoints along the longitudes are equally spaced, while they are unequally spaced along the latitudes, where they are defined by their Gaussian quadrature. In a reduced (or thinned) Gaussian grid, the number of gridpoints in the rows decreases towards the poles, which keeps the gridpoint separation approximately constant across the sphere.
Region Of Interest.
ECMWF SEAsonal range forecast (170 days). See Acquisition of forecasted weather.
Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard. STICS
Soil Typoligic Unit.
Soil Mapping Unit. Intersection of 25 x 25km grid cells and soil map. Each SMU is a collection of 1 up to 4 STU's. Within a SMU it is assumed that STU's have a homogeneous distribution, but can have different relative occurrences.
Surface Synoptic Observations. Numerical code used for reporting weather observations made by manned and automated weather stations.
Latest revision of the World Geodetic System that comprises a standard coordinate frame for the earth.
World Meteorological Organization. Intergovernmental organization of the United Nations that studies the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources. WMO
Water Accounting Rice Model is a user-friendly, simplified daily time step model for simulation of growth and development of paddy rice crops. The model accounts for all the main processes which characterize this peculiar system in a balanced way. The software has a modular structure, thus including independently developed components formalizing the knowledge in specific fields of rice and/or modelling research. A suite of tools is supplied to support analysis of various type such as model evaluation, sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, and parameter calibration. The model is meant to serve as an analytic tool to study rice development and productivity under alternative conditions.
WOrldFoodSTudies is a simulation model for the quantitative analysis of the growth and production of annual field crops. It is a mechanistic model that explains crop growth on the basis of the underlying processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration and how these processes are influenced by environmental conditions. WOFOST